The Mangrove Lab

Geomorphology : ecology : ecosystems services : remote sensing


Click on the pdf to download, or email us at dan.friess(at) You can also access these publications at Research Gate (click here).

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Friess & Oliver. 2014. Dynamic Environments of Singapore. McGraw Hill. 193 pages.

For a book review click here

Journal articles


Gaw, Linkie & Friess. Accepted. Mangrove forest dynamics in Tanintharyi, Myanmar from 1989-2014, and the implications of future economic and political developments. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography

Thompson, Gillen & Friess. Accepted. Challenging the principles of ecotourism: insights from entrepreneurs on environmental and economic sustainability in Langkawi, Malaysia. Journal of Sustainable Tourism

Sharma, Nadoaka, Nakoaka, Uy, MacKenzie, Friess & Fortes. In press. Growth performance and structure of a mangrove afforestation project on a former seagrass bed, Mindanao Island, Philippines. Hydrobiologia

Scales, Friess, Glass & Ravaoarinorotsihoarana. In press. Rural livelihoods and mangrove degradation in south-west Madagascar: Lime production as an emerging threat. Oryx

Friess. In press. J.G. Watson, Inundation Classes, and their influence on paradigms in mangrove forest ecology. Wetlands doi:10.1007/s13157-016-0747-6

Friess. 2017. Singapore as a long-term case study for tropical urban ecosystem services. Urban Ecosystems 20, 277-291.

Sillanpää, Vantellingen & Friess. 2017. Vegetation regeneration in a sustainably harvested mangrove forest in West Papua, Indonesia. Forest Ecology and Management 390, 137-146.

Friess & Jazeel. 2017. Unlearning 'landscape'. Annals of the American Association of Geographers 107, 14-21.

Thompson, Primavera & Friess. 2017. Governance and implementation challenges for mangrove forest Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES): empirical evidence from The Philippines. Ecosystem Services 23, 146-155.

Oh, Friess & Brown. 2017. The role of surface elevation in the rehabilitation of abandoned aquaculture ponds to mangrove forest, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Ecological Engineering 100, 325-334.


Friess, Thompson, Brown, Amir, Cameron, Koldewey, Sasmito & Sidik. 2016. Policy challenges and approaches for the conservation of mangrove forests in Southeast Asia. Conservation Biology 30, 933-949.

Richards & Friess. 2016. Rates and drivers of mangrove deforestation in Southeast Asia, 2000-2012. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113, 344-349.

Friess. 2016. Ecosystem services and disservices of mangrove forests: insights from historical colonial observations. Forests 7, 183.

Friess. 2016. Mangrove forests. Current Biology 26, R746-R748.

Friess*, Richards* & Phang. 2016. Mangrove forests store high densities of carbon across the tropical urban landscape of Singapore. Urban Ecosystems 19, 795-810.

Friess, Lee & Primavera. 2016. Turning the tide on mangrove loss: Editorial. Marine Pollution Bulletin 109, 673-675.

Friess, Oliver, Quak & Lau. 2016. Incorporating "virtual" and "real world" field trips into introductory geography modules. Journal of Geography in Higher Education 40, 546-564.

Willemsen, Horstman, Borsje, Friess, Dohmen-Janssen. 2016. Sensitivity of the sediment trapping capacity of an estuarine mangrove forest. Geomorphology 273, 189-201.

Terry, Oliver & Friess. 2016Ancient high-energy storm boulder deposits on Ko Samui, Thailand, and their significance for identifying coastal hazard risk. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 454, 282-293.

Singh, Evans, Coomes, Friess, Tan & Nin. 2016. Incorporating canopy cover for airborne-derived assessments of forest biomass in the tropical forests of Cambodia. PLoS ONE 11, e0154307.

Ward, Friess, Day & Mackenzie. 2016. Impacts of climate change on mangrove ecosystems: a region by region overview. Ecosystem Health and Sustainability 2, e01211.

Sasmito, Murdiyarso, Friess & Kurnianto. 2016. Can mangroves keep pace with contemporary sea level rise? A global data review. Wetlands Ecology and Management 24, 263-278.

Balke & Friess. 2016. Geomorphic knowledge for mangrove restoration: a pan-tropical categorization. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 41, 231-239.


Lovelock, Cahoon, Friess, Guntenspergen, Krauss, Reef, Rogers, Saunders, Sidik, Swales, Saintilan, Thuyen & Triet. 2015. The vulnerability of Indo-Pacific mangrove forests to sea-level rise. Nature 526, 559-563.

Friess, Phelps, Garmendia & Gómez-Baggethun. 2015. Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) in the face of external biophysical stressors. Global Environmental Change 30, 31-42.

Phang, Chou & Friess. 2015. Ecosystem carbon stocks across a tropical intertidal habitat mosaic of mangrove forest, seagrass meadow, mudflat and sandbar. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 40, 1387-1400.

Thiagarajah*, Wong*, Richards & Friess. 2015. Historical and contemporary cultural ecosystem service values in the rapidly urbanizing city state of Singapore. Ambio 44, 666-677.

Singh, Evans, Friess, Tan & Nin. 2015. Mapping Above-Ground Biomass in a tropical forest in Cambodia using canopy textures derived from Google Earth. Remote Sensing 7, 5057-5076.

Gillen, Ziegler, Friess & Wasson. 2015. Geography's role in nurturing postgraduate students. The Geographical Journal 181, 427-431.

Richards & Friess. 2015A rapid indicator of cultural ecosystem service usage at a fine spatial scale: content analysis of social media photographs. Ecological Indicators 53, 187-195.


Friess & Webb. 2014. Variability in mangrove change estimates and implications for the assessment of ecosystem service provision. Global Ecology and Biogeography 23, 715-725.

Friess, Möller, Spencer, Smith, Thomson & Hill. 2014. Coastal saltmarsh managed realignment drives rapid breach inlet and external creek evolution, Freiston Shore (UK). Geomorphology 208, 22-33.

Webb, Jachowski, Phelps, Friess, Than & Ziegler. 2014. Deforestation in the Ayeyarwady Delta and the conservation implications of an internationally-engaged Myanmar. Global Environmental Change 24, 321-333.

Ziegler, Terry, Oliver, Friess, Chuah, Chow & Wasson. 2014. Increasing Singapore's resilience to drought. Hydrological Processes 28, 4543-4548.


Webb, Friess, Krauss, Cahoon, Guntenspergen & Phelps. 2013. A global standard for monitoring coastal wetland vulnerability to accelerated sea level rise. Nature Climate Change 3, 458-465.

Friess. 2013. Tropical wetlands and REDD+: three unique scientific challenges for policy. International Journal of Rural Law and Policy 2013, 68-73.

Jachowski, Quak, Friess, Duangnamon, Webb & Ziegler. 2013. Mangrove biomass estimation in Southwest Thailand using machine learning. Applied Geography 45, 311-321.


Friess, Krauss, Horstman, Balke, Bouma, Galli & Webb. 2012. Are all intertidal wetlands naturally created equal? Bottlenecks, thresholds and knowledge gaps to mangrove and saltmarsh ecosystems. Biological Reviews 87, 346-366.

Friess, Spencer, Smith, Möller, Brooks & Thomson. 2012. Remote sensing of geomorphological and ecological change in response to saltmarsh managed realignment, The Wash, UK. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 18, 57-68.

Friess, Phelps, Leong, Lee, Wee, Sivasothi, Oh & Webb. 2012. Mandai mangrove, Singapore: lessons for the conservation of Southeast Asia's mangroves. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology S25, 55-65.

Webb, Phelps, Friess, Rao & Ziegler. 2012. Environment-friendly reform in Myanmar. Science 336, 295.

Phelps, Friess & Webb. 2012. Win-win REDD+ approaches belie carbon-biodiversity trade-offs. Biological Conservation 154, 53-60.

Spencer, Friess, Möller, Brown, Garbutt & French. 2012. Surface elevation change in natural and re-created intertidal habitats, eastern England, UK, with particular reference to Freiston Shore. Wetlands Ecology and Management 20, 9-33.


Friess, Kudavidanage & Webb. 2011. The digital globe is our oyster. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 9, 542

Friess & Webb. 2011. Bad data equals bad policy: how to trust rates of ecosystem loss when there is so much uncertainty? Environmental Conservation 38, 1-5

Krauss & Friess. 2011. Review of the World Atlas of Mangroves. Wetlands 35, 1003-1005

Book chapters

Friess. 2017. "Mangroves". In: Oxford Bibliographies in Environmental Science. Ed. Ellen Wohl. Oxford University Press.

Friess & Thompson. 2016. Mangrove Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES): a viable funding mechanism for Disaster Risk Reduction? In: Ecosystem-based Disaster Risk Reduction and Adaptation: Linking Science, Policy and Practice. Springer.

Friess. 2015. Managing Southeast Asian ecosystems to reduce coastal population vulnerability under sea level rise. In: Koh et al. (eds). Climate Change Adaptation: ASEAN and Comparative Experiences. World Scientific.

van Bochove et al. 2014. The Importance of Mangroves to People: a call to action. United Nations Environment Programme [contributor to Chapter 5].

Friess. 2014. Biophysical thresholds to mangrove establishment. In: Lewis & Brown (eds). Ecological Mangrove Restoration: a Field Manual for Practitioners. Oxfam, Canadian International Development Agency.

Chan, Friess, Terry & Mitchell. 2014. Climate impacts: vulnerability and adaptation in coastal East Asia. In: Harris & Lang (eds). Handbook of Environment and Society in East Asia. Routledge.

Friess & Lacambra. 2013. El uso de LiDAR para la elaboración de mapas y modelos de amenazas naturales en zonas costeras [the use of LiDAR to map and model natural hazards in the coastal zone]. In: Alcantara (ed). Métodos en Teledetección Aplicada a la Prevención de Riesgos Naturales en el Litoral. [in Spanish, email me for an English version]

Lacambra, Friess, Spencer & Möller. 2013. Bioshields: mangroves as a resilient coastal defence. In: Renaud, Sudmeier-Rieux & Estrella (eds). The Role of Ecosystems in Disaster Risk Reduction. United Nations University Press. Pgs 82-108.

Friess & Lee. 2012. Sundarban mangroves. In: Biomes and Ecosystems: an Encyclopedia. Golsen Press.

Friess, Möller & Spencer. 2008. Managed realignment and the re-establishment of saltmarsh habitat, Freiston Shore, Lincolnshire, United Kingdom. In: ProAct Network, The Role of Environmental Management and Eco-Engineering in Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation. ProAct Network/UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction. 124p.

Gardiner, Hanson, Nicholls, Spencer & Friess. 2008. Coastal habitats, MCCIP Annual Report Card 2007–2008 Scientific Review. Marine Climate Change Impacts Partnership.

Remote sensing guides

These are step-by-step guides for various remote sensing/GIS tasks. More will be added as we write them! Please feel free to download and distribute. Any errors email dan.friess(at)

Using Google Earth for Environmental Science Research

Google Earth, websites and shareware software to conduct tasks such as terrain analysis, area/perimeter measurements, buffers, generate random points etc.

Geocorrection in ERDAS Imagine

How to georeference aerial photographs and other non-rectified imagery and put them into a coordinate system.

Land cover classification in ERDAS Imagine

Unsupervised and supervised classification of multispectral (e.g. free Landsat) data, and accuracy assessment of the results.